UHF-Satcom.com - SOVIET SPACE FREQUENCY USAGE

This page is presented as a historical reminder of frequencies used by the Russian Space programme in the past.
FREQUENCY(MHZ)    DESCRIPTION            SPACECRAFT
19.542            FSK-PDM                SOVIET RADAR OCEAN SURVEILLANCE       
                                         SATELLITES(THERE MIGHT BE MORE F-1    
                                         ROCKET MISSION THAT USE THIS FREQ)    
19.954            FSK-PDM(NOTE 1)        ADD-ON MODULES ON SALYUT SPACE        
                                         STATIONS(K929,1267,1443,1686)         
19.989            FSK(NOTE 2)            RECON SATELLITES WITH 15 DAY LIVES    
                                         K1623, 1628, 1632, 1644,1648,1649,    
                                         1653, 1663, 1664, 1665, 1668,1671,    
                                         1678, 1681, 1683, 1696, 1702,1705,    
                                         1708, 1715, 1728, 1730, 1740,1746,    
                                         1747, 1760, 1765, 1772, 1775,1781,    
                                         1787, 1790, 1804.                     
19.995            CW "MORSE CODE"        RECOVERY BEACON FOR KOSMOS RECONS     
                  (NOTE 3)               1671, 1696, 1702, 1740, 1742,1760,    
                                         AND 1765.                             
20.008            CW-PDM(NOTE 1)         SALYUT AND SOYUZ-T SPACECRAFT.        
                                         (SALYUT 7 AND SOYUZ T-13/14/15)       
29.331            CW TELEMETRY           RADIO SPUTNIK 5(AMATEUR SATELLITE)    
29.341            CW TELEMETRY           RADIO SPUTNIK 7(AMATEUR SATELLITE)    
29.400            CW TELEMETRY(NOTE 4)   RADIO SPUTNIK 1(AMATUER SATELLITE)    
                                         THIS SATELLITE HAS OCCASIONAL         
                                         LIFE. TMS ARE MESSED UP.              
29.454            CW TELEMETRY(NOTE 4)   RADIO SPUTNIK 5(AMATEUR SATELLITE)    
29.500            CW TELEMETRY(NOTE 4)   RADIO SPUTNIK 7(AMATEUR SATELLITE)    
39.978            FSK(NOTE 2)            RECONNAISSANCE KOSMOS WITH LIFE       
                                         UP TO 15 DAYS: KOSMOS 1768. 2ND       
                                         HARMONIC OF 19.989                    
51.100            CW BEACON              KOSMOS 1151 (OCEAN RESEARCH)          
51.140            CW BEACON              KOSMOS HEAVY ELINT SATELLITES         
51.160            CW BEACON              ALTERNATE KOSMOS HVY ELINT FREQ       
51.200            CW BEACON              KOSMOS STORE-DUMP COMSATS             
137.050(DRIFTS    APT AT 4 LINES/S       METEOR 30                             
DOWN IN FREQ)                                                                  
137.180           AM/FM                  bHASKARA 1 AND bHASKARA 2(IND)        
137.300           APT AT 2 LINES/S       METEOR 2-11/2-13/2-14                 
137.400           APT AT 2 LINES/S       METEOR 2-10/2-12/2-13/METEOR 3-1      
                  INFRARED @ 20 LINES/M                                        
137.400           APT AT 4 LINES/S       KOSMOS 1500/1602/1766                 
                  (NOTE 5)               OCEANOGRAPHIC SATELLITES              
137.850           APT AT 2 LINES/S       METEOR 2-8/2-14/METEOR 3              
142.417           FM VOICE               SALYUT 7                              
143.625           FM VOICE               MIR(SALYUT 8)                         
149.910           AM/FM(NOTE 6)          KOSMOS MILITARY NAVSAT IN 83 DEG,     
                                         105 MIN ORBIT: KOSMOS 1610(2)         
                                         1709(2)                               
149.940           AM/FM(NOTE 6)          KOSMOS MILITARY NAVSAT: 1333(7),      
                                         1513(6), 1535 (8), 1598 (3), 1634     
                                         (6), 1704 (8), 1759 (6), 1808 (3)     
149.970           AM/FM(NOTE 6)          KOSMOS MILITARY NAVSAT: 1605(4),      
                                         1627 (1), 1745 (1), 1802 (4)          
150.000           AM/FM(NOTE 6)          KOSMOS(COSPAR) CIVIL NAVSAT: 1447     
                                         (13), 1506 (12), 1553 (11), 1574      
                                         (14), 1655 (13), 1727 (12), 1791      
                                         (11).                                 
150.030           AM/FM(NOTE 6)          KOSMOS MILITARY NAVSAT: 1464 (5),     
                                         1577 (5), 1725 (5)                    
150.300           FM W/300 KHZ-WIDE      2ND GENERATION KOSMOS GEODETIC        
                  PCM TMS, 2S FRAME      SATELLITE: 1589/1660/1803             
                  LENGTH                                                       
153.420           CW BEACON @ < 1 WATT   HEAVY ELINT KOSMOS: 1626,1633,1536    
                                         1674,1703,1707,1733, 1782.            
                                         3RD HARMONIC OF 51.140 MHZ.           
153.480           CW BCN @ < 1 WATT      ALTERNATE FREQ HVY ELINT: 1666        
                                         1544,1633,1726,1743,1758.             
                                         3RD HARMONIC OF 51.160 MHZ.           
153.600           CW BCN @ < 1 WATT      STORE DUMP KOSMOS DISCOVERED BY       
                                         CLIFF RANFT AT CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND     
                                         KOSMOS 1354,1538,1570,1624,1680,      
                                         1741.                                 
165.000           PPM-AM 300 KHZ WIDE    SALYUT 7                              
                  (NOTE 7)                                                     
166.000           FM TMS 300 KHZ WIDE    SOYUZ T-13/14/15,PROGRESS TANKERS     
                  (NOTE 8)               POSSIBLY MIR AND SOYUZ TM-1/2/3       
166.000           PPN-AM 300 KHZ WIDE    RORSAT: KOSMOS 1736                   
                  (NOTE 7)               EORSAT: KOSMOS 1769                   
179.985           CW BEACON              CHINA 17/19 PHOTO RECON SATELLITE     
192.000           PPM-AM 300 KHZ WIDE    SALYUT 7                              
                  (NOTE 7)                                                     
204.560           CW BCN < 1 WATT        COHERENT WITH BCN AT 153.420, 4TH     
                                         HARMONIC OF 51.140                    
204.640           CW BCN < 1 WATT        COHERENT WITH BCN AT 153.480, 4TH     
                                         HARMONIC OF 51.160                    
204.800           CW BCN < 1 WATT        COHERENT WITH STORE-DUMP BCN AT       
                                         153.600, HARMONIC OF 51.200           
231.500           FM TMS 300 KHZ WIDE    NEW SIGNAL TYPE FOR KOSMOS RECON      
                  (NOTE 8)               WITH LIFE UP TO 15 DAYS, 1ST NOTED    
                                         W/1685,1765,1787,1804.                
232.000           PPM-AM 300 KHZ WIDE    KOSMOS RECONS W/LIFE UP TO 15 DAYS    
                                         TRANSMITTING ON 19.989 MHZ.           
                                         KOSMOS 1715,1728,1740.                
240.000           FM TMS 300 KHZ WIDE    4TH GENERATION KOSMOS RECONS:LONG     
                  (NOTE 8)               DURATION: 1616, 1630, 1647, 1654      
                                         1679, 1699, 1706, 1724, 1734, 1739    
                                         1764, AND 1807                        
247.000           FM TMS 300 KHZ WIDE    ADD-ON MODULES(SEE 19.954)            
248.000           PPM-AM 300 KHZ WIDE    SUN-SYNCHRONOUS EARTH RESOURCES:      
                  (NOTE 7)               KOSMOS 1689 TYPE                      
393.675           FM TELEMETRY           CHINA 17/19 PHOTO RECON SATELLITE     
399.760           UNMODULATED CARRIER    COHERENT WITH 149.910 MHZ.            
399.840           UNMODULATED CARRIER    COHERENT WITH 149.940 MHZ.            
399.920           UNMODULATED CARRIER    COHERENT WITH 149.970 MHZ.            
400.000           UNMODULATED CARRIER    COHERENT WITH 150.000 MHZ.            
400.080           UNMODULATED CARRIER    COHERENT WITH 150.030 MHZ.            
400.800           CW BEACON              COHERENT WITH 150.300 MHZ.            
479.970           CW BEACON              CHINA 19                              
922.750           CW @ 10 W RADIATED     SALYUT AND SOYUZ SPACECRAFT           
                                         (SALYUT 7/SOYUZ T-13/14/15)           
926.070           CW @ 10 W RADIATED     SALYUT SPACECRAFT(SALYUT 7)           
1246.8750         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1520 (GLONASS)                 
1247.7500         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1710 (GLONASS)                 
1249.0625         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1650 (GLONASS)                 
1249.9375         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1554/1651 (GLONASS)            
1253.4375         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1595 (GLONASS)                 
1254.3125         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1711 (GLONASS)                 
1256.5000         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1555 (GLONASS)                 
1603.1250         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1520 (GLONASS)                 
1603.6875         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1490 (GLONASS)                 
1604.2500         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1710 (GLONASS)                 
1605.9375         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1650 (GLONASS)                 
1607.0625         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1554 (GLONASS)                 
1607.6250         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1651 (GLONASS)                 
1611.5625         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1595 (GLONASS)                 
1612.1250         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1519 (GLONASS)                 
1612.6875         SPREAD SPECTRUM        KOSMOS 1711 (GLONASS)                 
1691.00                                  METEOR 30                             
1694.50                                  METEOR 30                             
2298.00           CW BEACON              EARLY WARNING SATELLITES              
2304.00           CW BEACON              EARLY WARNING SATELLITES              
                                                                               
                                                                          {    
                                                                               
NOTES:                                                                         
                                                                               
1.  FREQUENCY-SHIFT KEYED(FSK) WITH THE 'OFF' AND 'ON' PERIODS TRANSMITTED     
ON TWO ADJACENT FREQUENCIES APPROXIMATELY 1 KHZ APART.  THE TELEMETRY FRAME    
CONSIST OF A TRAIN OF RAPID SYNCHRONIZING PULSES FOLLOWED BY 15 WORDS          
TRANSMITTED AT A RATE OF APPROXIMATELY ONE PER SECOND.  THESE WORDS ARE        
PULSE DURATION MODULATED (PDM).                                                
    A VARIATION OF THIS BASIC TELEMETRY SYSTEM TRANSMITS ONLY THE 'ON'         
PERIODS AS A  KEYED CONTINOUS WAVE(CW). OTHERWISE THE FORMAT IS THE SAME       
AS THAT FOR THE FSK-PDM.                                                       
                                                                               
2.  FREQUENCY-SHIFT KEYING BACK AND FORTH BETWEEN TWO ADJACENT FREQUENCIES     
APPROXIMATELY 1 KHZ APART.  EACH FREQUENCY IS TRANSMITTED FOR EQUAL            
DURATIONS SO THERE IS NO INFORMATION CONTENT IN THE SIGNAL. THE TIME FOR       
ONE COMPLETE CYCLE CARIES FROM ONE SATELLITE TO ANOTHER AND IS BETWEEN         
1.4 AND 1.8 SECONDS.  DIFFERENCES IN CYCLE-DURATION CAN BE USED TO             
DISTINGUISH SATELLITES IN ORBIT SIMULTANEOUSLY.                                
                                                                               
3.  KEYED CW SIGNAL CONSISTING OF A REPETITIVE SEQUENCE ON MORSE CODE          
CHARACTER PAIRS, E.G. TF.  THE DASH OF THE T HAS TWICE THE DURATION OF THE     
DASH IN THE F.  THIS COMMON TO ALL RECOVERY BEACONS OBSERVED TO DATE.          
                                                                               
4.  CONVENTIONAL MORSE CODE CHARACTER GROUPS IN FOUR 7-WORD FRAMES EACH        
PREFIXED BY THE IDENTIFIER, E.G. RS7.  THE WORDS OF THE FIRST FRAME BEGIN      
WITH LETTERS K, D, O, G, U, S, W AND END WITH A 2-DIGIT NUMBER.  SUBSEQUENT    
FRAMES USE THE SAME SEQUENCE OF LETTERS PRECEDED BY I, A, M.  WHEN THE         
SATELLITE IS IN THE 'COMMAND' MODE, THE FOUR FRAMES START WITH THE LETTERS     
E, S, U, W OBTAINED BY ADDING A 'DOT' IN MORSE CODE IN FRONT OF THE            
CHARACTERS OF THE FIRST SET, E.G. I(..) BECOMES S(...), A(.-) BECOMES          
U(..-), ETC.                                                                   
                                                                               
5.  APT TRANSMITTED IS SIMILIAR TO THAT FROM THE SUN-SYNCHRONOUS METEOR 30     
BUT IMAGERY CAN SHOW VISIBLE AND RADAR SWATHS CONTIGUOUSLY.                    
                                                                               
6.  MODULATION-RATE OF 50 BITS/S.  THE DATA TO BE TRANSMITTED SELECTS A LOW    
FREQUENCY AND THE RESULTING SEQUENCE AMPLITUDE MODULATES THE VHF CARRIER.      
THE DATA TO BE TRANSMITTED SELECT EITHER 3, 5, OR 7 KHZ PRODUCING SIDE         
BANDS A, B, C AFTER MODULATING THE CARRIER.  ONLY THE 3 AND 5 KHZ CARRY THE    
BINARY INFORMATION.  TRANSITIONAL ENCODING IS EMPLOYED, BINARY 1 BEING         
REPRESENTED BY A CHANGE FROM 3 TO 5 KHZ OR VICE-VERSA.  bINARY 0 PRODUCES      
NO SHIFT IN FREQUENCY.  THE 7 KHZ TONE PROVIDES TIME SYNCHRONIZATION EVERY     
SECOND.                                                                        
    THE NUMBERS FOR THE NAVSATS GIVEN IN PARENTHESIS FOLLOWING THE KOSMOS      
NUMBERS ALLOCATED TO THE SATELLITES BY THE SOVIETS.                            
                                                                               
7.  IN THIS PULSED AM TRANSMISSION, 4 MICROSECONDS-LONG PULSES ARE             
TRANSMITTED EVERY 80 MICROSECONDS.  THESE PULSES DEFINE WORDS IN THE           
TELEMETRY FORMAT.  WITHIN EACH SUCH INTERVAL A WORD-VALUE PULSE IS             
TRANSMITTED.  ITS POSITION IN THE 80 MICROSECOND WORD-INTERVAL DEFINES         
THE PARTICULAR WORD-VALUE TRANSMITTED.  SUCH A SYSTEM IS PULSE-POSITION        
MODULATED AMPLITUDE MODULATION (PPM-AM).  THERE IS ALSO A SECOND MODE WITH     
A WORD-INTERVAL OF 96 MICROSECONDS.                                            
                                                                               
8.  THIS TELEMETRY SIGNAL CONSIST OF AN APPROXIMATELY 300 KHZ-WIDE FM          
SPECTRUM WITH MOST ENERGY AT THE EDGES OF THE SIGNAL BANDWIDTH, INDICATING     
A HIGH MODULATION INDEX.  THE MODULATING SIGNAL IS PROBABLY AN                 
AMPLITUDE-MODULATED PULSE TRAIN(PAM).  THE NORMAL FRAME-DURATION IS 10         
MILLISECONDS AND THE NORMAL FRAME COMPRISES 32 WORDS.  IT HAS NOT BEEN         
POSSIBLE TO MEASURE THE FORMAT-LENGTH TO DETERMINE THE AMOUNT OF               
SUB-COMMUTATION USED.                                                          
                                                                               
     THERE ARE STILL ALOT OF SOVIET SPACECRAFT SIGNALS TO BE FOUND.            
SEVERAL CLASSES OF SATELLITES HAVE ESCAPED DETECTION BY AMATEURS OF THEIR      
RADIO SIGNALS.  SOME OF THE KOSMOS MISSIONS I HAVE NO DATA FOR ARE AS          
FOLLOWS:                                                                       
                                                                               
1)  8 LAUNCHED TACTICAL SATELLITES(THESE ARE SIMILIAR TO IDSCP SATELLITES      
LAUNCHED BY THE US.  WE MIGHT FIND THEM WITH TM BEACONS AROUND 400 MHZ.        
2)  1603 CLASS ELINT SATELLITES.                                               
3)  GEOSTATIONARY COMSATS WITH KOSMOS LABELS.  SOME OF THESE MIGHT             
REPRESENT THE LONG AWAITED VOLNA TRANSPONDERS WITH UHF PACKAGES.  THESE        
WOULD BE SIMILIAR TO A FLTSATCOM/LEASAT SYSTEM.  ANYONE NOTING ANY UNUSUAL     
225-400 MHZ ACTIVITY TO THE EAST OF THE US NOT COVERED BY  COMMUNICATION{      
SATELLITES  PLEASE LET ME KNOW AND I WILL ALERT ALL.                           
4)  SPACE PLANE TEST                                                           
5)  ALL CLASSES OF MINOR MILITARY SATELLITES.                                  
6)  TV SIGNAL TRANSMISSIONS FROM SALYUT SPACECRAFT.